No.2 “Castaways and foreign people from overseas”

2020年6月3日に発刊された、『ペリー来航始末記』英訳版連載です。

The Story of The Commodore Perry’s visit to Japan

No.1 “National isolationism” 日本語版P1-P2はこちら↓

Castaways and foreign people from overseas 日本語版 P3

In 1630-1850, Japanese people had been highly prohibited to visit and go back to Japan from foreign countries, cause Tokugawa shogunate declared “National isolationism”, so diplomacy and trading followed this policy in Edo era.

However castaways who were drifted regardless of their purpose were permitted to come back exceptionally. There were famous castaways such as Daikokuya Kodayu, John Manjirou, and Joseph Hiko(Hikozou Hamada).

Even in under the “National isolationism”, Hollander and Chinese merchants were allowed to trade at Nagasaki limitedly. Hollander in Dejima, trading director and its attendants were allowed to visit Edo and go around Japan once a year(it was changed to once a four year later).

Before the declaring of “National isolationism” , in 1609 (14th of Keicho) temporal governor Philippine ”General Rodrigo De Bielo” were drifted to Japan on his way to Mexico from Manila.

He also walked around Edo town at that time.

 And also Mr.Kenpel who was the doctor of Holland’s trading house had visited Edo twice in 1691 and in 1692 ( 4th and 5th of Genroku)  Then he wrote a book named “ Japan magazine”.

In 1826(9th of Bunsei), Dr.Seabolt who was a germany doctor visited Edo. He made alert that Edo was on too many population concentration and it would be serious problems happened if the sea transportation would be stopped. Commodore Perry had gathered and researched the information from the foreign people who visited Japan, then he made plan to change Japan’s “National isolationism” policy.

Arrivals of ships from foreign countries before the arrival of Commodore Perry.

日本語版 P4

This is the most important incident in Japanese history which had been called “Kichu Irai” at the end of Tokugawa shogunate. 167years ago in 1853(6th of Kaei) on June the 3rd (the old calendar), an envoy who would offer to open Japan to command 4 of war ships from America. The name of the envoy from America was “Matthew Calbraith Perry” who was the commander of America east India and China at that time.

“泰平の 眠りを覚ます 上喜撰(蒸気船) たった四杯で 夜も眠れず”

This is the satire comic tanka poem which was made when Commodore Perry’s fleet arrived at Uraga.

It has been said that this satire tanka poem was showed frequently and people living in Edo who were got used to live in peaceful life at that time were surprised and run around in confusion because of sudden arrival of commodore Perry’s fleet, but the fact was different from that features.

In case of American ships arrival to Japan, James Biddle came to Uraga with 2 war ships 7years before Commodore Perry’s arrival in 1846(3th of Kouka). Russian ships have come to Japan since end of 18th century. An English ship “the Phaeton” came to Nagasaki while chasing hollands’ ship which was at war with England.

 The brain of Tokugawa shogunate had known world situation by “Hollands’ Fusetsugaki(documents about Holland’s infomation)” “Tousen Fusetsugaki(documents about Chinese infomation)” and had paid attention to western great powers which colonized many asian countries.

In addition, citizens such as westerner which tried to gather world situation criticized Tokugawa shogunate which declared the order of discharging foreign ships. It has been famous incident such as “Bansha no Goku” which was the incident Choei Takano and Kazan Watanabe were killed.

 The chief of Roju “Roju Shuza” Masahiro Abe and government officials prepared carefully but the image of Tokugawa shogunate has been created miserable one like the satire comic tanka poem which showed Tokugawa shogunate had lost their composure by arrival of Perry’s fleet in Meiji era.

No,3 “The outbreak of Opium war” 日本語版 P5-P6

——–各種情報——–

やきとり竜馬におまかせ 斉藤秀一

経営コンサルタント堀込孝繁 氏 の共著

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