The Story of The Commodore Perry’s visit to Japan
No.2 “National isolationism” 日本語版P1-P2はこちら↓
No,3 “The outbreak of Opium war” 日本語版 P5-P6
In 1839( 9 of Tenpo), when “Bansha no Goku(It was the declaring by Tokugawa shogunate which killed westerner), China tried to stop importing of Opium which was prohibited to import then they expropriated Opium from England merchants and threw it into the sea. England reacted to this reasonable action by China with combat then they destroyed 29 Chinese ships with only 2 war ships at Koshu area.
This was the start of “The Opium war” which was opportunity for European countries colonized Asian countries.
In England, they approved to do this absurd war with by 9 votes in parliament. England’s navy expanded military action to southwest coast then they occupied Shanghai island and reaching Nankin. China surrendered and ceded Hong Kong and opened Shanghai, Koshu port furthermore they approved reparation of opium and war expenditures(Treaty of Nanking).
Tokugawa shogunate knew this incident when Tadakuni Mizuno who was the Roju-Hittou (chief of shogun’s council) had just started “Tenpo no Kaikaku(Innovation of governance) in 1840(11 of Tenpo era) This information was brought from Holland’s ships as “the Holland Fusetsugaki(World information by Holland) because they had reported situations of European countries every time when they came to Japan. This was formalized documents but they reported about details of opium war as “The Betsudan Fusetsugaki(Special notes of world situation) in same year’s July.
Tadakuni Mizuno was really shocked by that news which The China which Mizuno thought it was huge and powerful country was defeated easily. Until then, Tokugawa shogunate declared that we swept aside any ships which got closer to Japanese lands. This has been called “Ikokusen Uchihara Rei(Edict to repel foreign vessels)”(Muninen Uchiharai Rei) when many foreign whaling ships appeared near Japanese home waters Tokugawa shogunate made rules of it in 1825(8 of Bunsei).
In 1837(8 of Tenpo), it happened an incident that Japanese soldiers swept aside Morison which brought Japanese castaways back to Japan at offshore of Nobi, Yokosuka city and Hiraneyama Daiba. There was an episode Morison misunderstood their shots as salutes.
But Dutch scholars strongly criticized this incidents. In 1842(13 of Tenpo), Mizuno repealed “Ikokusen Uchihara Rei(Edict to repel foreign vessels)” and issued “Shinsui Kyuyorei(Orders of supplying firewoods, water and foods)”. They offered that no have meaningless conflicts with foreign vessels and supply firewoods and water and foods when they wanted that.
At those days, Shuhan Takashima who was the town councilor of Nagasaki was appointed as a shogunate retainer and he trained soldiers European gunnery at Tokushimagahara(Takashimadaira, Itabashi district, Tokyo) located near the Edo area. It showed Tokugawa shogunate’s risk management policy that they cultivated Imbanuma area to transport supplies from Choshi, Chiba pref to Edo if Edo bay would be blockaded by foreign vessels.
やきとり竜馬におまかせ 斉藤秀一 氏
経営コンサルタント堀込孝繁 氏 の共著